# 函数式编程与分布式（CRDTs）

### (多)线程/协程并不能让你更容易/优雅地解决并行/分布式问题 –除非你是库的作者。

1. 单机处理需要的时间太长，最好能够通过分布式计算解决
2. 对于这个问题来讲，任务拆分其实不难
3. 难点在于如何实时合并各个节点统计的结果

### 什么是CAP定理？

In theoretical computer science, the CAP theorem, also named Brewer’s theorem after computer scientist Eric Brewer, states that it is impossible for a distributed data store to simultaneously provide more than two out of the following three guarantees:

• Consistency: Every read receives the most recent write or an error
• Availability: Every request receives a (non-error) response, without the guarantee that it contains the most recent write
• Partition tolerance: The system continues to operate despite an arbitrary number of messages being dropped (or delayed) by the network between nodes One workaround for the CAP theorem, which I believe was pioneered at Amazon but which is now widespread, is to go for “eventual consistency”: maintain an AP system, but ensure that every update to a given datum is eventually propagated to every node that needs to know about it.

### 什么是CRDTs？

In distributed computing, a conflict-free replicated data type (CRDT) is a data structure which can be replicated across multiple computers in a network, where the replicas can be updated independently and concurrently without coordination between the replicas, and where it is always mathematically possible to resolve inconsistencies that might come up.

### Go to Math

• 封闭性（Closure）：对于任意a，b∈G，有a*b∈G
• 结合律（Associativity）：对于任意a，b，c∈G，有（ab）c=a（bc）
• 幺元 （Identity）：存在幺元e，使得对于任意a∈G，ea=ae=a
• 逆元：对于任意a∈G，存在逆元a^-1，使得a^-1a=aa^-1=e ### Show me the code, now!

trait SemiGroup[T]:
extension (x: T) def combine (y: T): T

trait Monoid[T] extends SemiGroup[T]:
def unit: T

object Monoid:
def apply[T](using m: Monoid[T]) = m


### Hello, Monoid

given Monoid[Int]:
extension (x: Int) def combine (y: Int): Int = x + y
def unit: Int = 0

1 combine 2

def combineAll[T: Monoid](xs: List[T]): T =
xs.foldLeft(Monoid[T].unit)(_.combine(_))

combineAll(List(1, 2, 3))


### Let’s get started!

type Result = Map[String,Int]

given Monoid[Result]:
extension (x: Result) def combine (y: Result): Result =
(x.toList ::: y.toList).groupBy(_._1).map {
case (k, v) => (k, (v.map(_._2).reduce(_ combine _)))
}.toMap
def unit: Result = Map.empty

val left = Map("hello" -> 1, "monoid" -> 2)
val right = Map("hello" -> 1, "scala" -> 3)

scala> left combine right
val res1: Result = HashMap(monoid -> 2, scala -> 3, hello -> 2)